Meta-Learning to Communicate: Fast End-to-End Training for Fading Channels2019-10-22 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

When a channel model is available, learning how to communicate on fading noisy channels can be formulated as the (unsupervised) training of an autoencoder consisting of the cascade of encoder, channel, and decoder. An important limitation of the approach is that training should be generally carried out from scratch for each new channel. To cope with this problem, prior works considered joint training over multiple channels with the aim of finding a single pair of encoder and decoder that works well on a class of channels. As a result, joint training ideally mimics the operation of non-coherent transmission schemes. In this paper, we propose to obviate the limitations of joint training via meta-learning: Rather than training a common model for all channels, meta-learning finds a common initialization vector that enables fast training on any channel. The approach is validated via numerical results, demonstrating significant training speed-ups, with effective encoders and decoders obtained with as little as one iteration of Stochastic Gradient Descent. |

End-to-End Fast Training of Communication Links Without a Channel Model via Online Meta-Learning2020-03-03 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

When a channel model is not available, the end-to-end training of encoder and decoder on a fading noisy channel generally requires the repeated use of the channel and of a feedback link. An important limitation of the approach is that training should be generally carried out from scratch for each new channel. To cope with this problem, prior works considered joint training over multiple channels with the aim of finding a single pair of encoder and decoder that works well on a class of channels. In this paper, we propose to obviate the limitations of joint training via meta-learning. The proposed approach is based on a meta-training phase in which the online gradient-based meta-learning of the decoder is coupled with the joint training of the encoder via the transmission of pilots and the use of a feedback link. Accounting for channel variations during the meta-training phase, this work demonstrates the advantages of meta-learning in terms of number of pilots as compared to conventional methods when the feedback link is only available for meta-training and not at run time. |

Deep Learning for Channel Coding via Neural Mutual Information Estimation2019-03-07 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

End-to-end deep learning for communication systems, i.e., systems whose encoder and decoder are learned, has attracted significant interest recently, due to its performance which comes close to well-developed classical encoder-decoder designs. However, one of the drawbacks of current learning approaches is that a differentiable channel model is needed for the training of the underlying neural networks. In real-world scenarios, such a channel model is hardly available and often the channel density is not even known at all. Some works, therefore, focus on a generative approach, i.e., generating the channel from samples, or rely on reinforcement learning to circumvent this problem. We present a novel approach which utilizes a recently proposed neural estimator of mutual information. We use this estimator to optimize the encoder for a maximized mutual information, only relying on channel samples. Moreover, we show that our approach achieves the same performance as state-of-the-art end-to-end learning with perfect channel model knowledge. |

Realistic Channel Models Pre-training2019-07-21 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

In this paper, we propose a neural-network-based realistic channel model with both the similar accuracy as deterministic channel models and uniformity as stochastic channel models. To facilitate this realistic channel modeling, a multi-domain channel embedding method combined with self-attention mechanism is proposed to extract channel features from multiple domains simultaneously. This 'one model to fit them all' solution employs available wireless channel data as the only data set for self-supervised pre-training. With the permission of users, network operators or other organizations can make use of some available user specific data to fine-tune this pre-trained realistic channel model for applications on channel-related downstream tasks. Moreover, even without fine-tuning, we show that the pre-trained realistic channel model itself is a great tool with its understanding of wireless channel. |

Channel Estimation via Successive Denoising in MIMO OFDM Systems: A Reinforcement Learning Approach2021-01-25 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Reliable communication through multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) requires accurate channel estimation. Existing literature largely focuses on denoising methods for channel estimation that are dependent on either (i) channel analysis in the time-domain, and/or (ii) supervised learning techniques, requiring large pre-labeled datasets for training. To address these limitations, we present a frequency-domain denoising method based on the application of a reinforcement learning framework that does not need a priori channel knowledge and pre-labeled data. Our methodology includes a new successive channel denoising process based on channel curvature computation, for which we obtain a channel curvature magnitude threshold to identify unreliable channel estimates. Based on this process, we formulate the denoising mechanism as a Markov decision process, where we define the actions through a geometry-based channel estimation update, and the reward function based on a policy that reduces the MSE. We then resort to Q-learning to update the channel estimates over the time instances. Numerical results verify that our denoising algorithm can successfully mitigate noise in channel estimates. In particular, our algorithm provides a significant improvement over the practical least squares (LS) channel estimation method and provides performance that approaches that of the ideal linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) with perfect knowledge of channel statistics. |

Learning the Wireless V2I Channels Using Deep Neural Networks2019-07-10 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

For high data rate wireless communication systems, developing an efficient channel estimation approach is extremely vital for channel detection and signal recovery. With the trend of high-mobility wireless communications between vehicles and vehicles-to-infrastructure (V2I), V2I communications pose additional challenges to obtaining real-time channel measurements. Deep learning (DL) techniques, in this context, offer learning ability and optimization capability that can approximate many kinds of functions. In this paper, we develop a DL-based channel prediction method to estimate channel responses for V2I communications. We have demonstrated how fast neural networks can learn V2I channel properties and the changing trend. The network is trained with a series of channel responses and known pilots, which then speculates the next channel response based on the acquired knowledge. The predicted channel is then used to evaluate the system performance. |

Propagation Channel Modeling by Deep learning Techniques2019-08-19 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Channel, as the medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves, is one of the most important parts of a communication system. Being aware of how the channel affects the propagation waves is essential for designing, optimization and performance analysis of a communication system. For this purpose, a proper channel model is needed. This paper presents a novel propagation channel model which considers the time-frequency response of the channel as an image. It models the distribution of these channel images using Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks. Moreover, for the measurements with different user speeds, the user speed is considered as an auxiliary parameter for the model. StarGAN as an image-to-image translation technique is used to change the generated channel images with respect to the desired user speed. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated using existing metrics. Furthermore, to capture 2D similarity in both time and frequency, a new metric is introduced. Using this metric, the generated channels show significant statistical similarity to the measurement data. |

Source Coding Based mmWave Channel Estimation with Deep Learning Based Decoding2019-04-30 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

mmWave technology is set to become a main feature of next generation wireless networks, e.g., 5G mobile and WiFi 802.11ad/ay. Among the basic and most fundamental challenges facing mmWave is the ability to overcome its unfavorable propagation characteristics using energy efficient solutions. This has been addressed using innovative transceiver architectures. However, these architectures have their own limitations when it comes to channel estimation. This paper focuses on channel estimation and poses it as a source compression problem, where channel measurements are designed to mimic an encoded (compressed) version of the channel. We show that linear source codes can significantly reduce the number of channel measurements required to discover all channel paths. We also propose a deep-learning-based approach for decoding the obtained measurements, which enables high-speed and efficient channel discovery. |

Efficient channel charting via phase-insensitive distance computation2021-04-27 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Channel charting is an unsupervised learning task whose objective is to encode channels so that the obtained representation reflects the relative spatial locations of the corresponding users. It has many potential applications, ranging from user scheduling to proactive handover. In this paper, a channel charting method is proposed, based on a distance measure specifically designed to reduce the effect of small scale fading, which is an irrelevant phenomenon with respect to the channel charting task. A nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique aimed at preserving local distances (Isomap) is then applied to actually get the channel representation. The approach is empirically validated on realistic synthetic MIMO channels, achieving better results than previously proposed approaches, at a lower cost. |

Physical Layer Communications System Design Over-the-Air Using Adversarial Networks2018-03-08 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

This paper presents a novel method for synthesizing new physical layer modulation and coding schemes for communications systems using a learning-based approach which does not require an analytic model of the impairments in the channel. It extends prior work published on the channel autoencoder to consider the case where the channel response is not known or can not be easily modeled in a closed form analytic expression. By adopting an adversarial approach for channel response approximation and information encoding, we can jointly learn a good solution to both tasks over a wide range of channel environments. We describe the operation of the proposed adversarial system, share results for its training and validation over-the-air, and discuss implications and future work in the area. |

Deep Learning for Joint Source-Channel Coding of Text2018-02-19 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

We consider the problem of joint source and channel coding of structured data such as natural language over a noisy channel. The typical approach to this problem in both theory and practice involves performing source coding to first compress the text and then channel coding to add robustness for the transmission across the channel. This approach is optimal in terms of minimizing end-to-end distortion with arbitrarily large block lengths of both the source and channel codes when transmission is over discrete memoryless channels. However, the optimality of this approach is no longer ensured for documents of finite length and limitations on the length of the encoding. We will show in this scenario that we can achieve lower word error rates by developing a deep learning based encoder and decoder. While the approach of separate source and channel coding would minimize bit error rates, our approach preserves semantic information of sentences by first embedding sentences in a semantic space where sentences closer in meaning are located closer together, and then performing joint source and channel coding on these embeddings. |

Doubly Residual Neural Decoder: Towards Low-Complexity High-Performance Channel Decoding2021-02-07 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Recently deep neural networks have been successfully applied in channel coding to improve the decoding performance. However, the state-of-the-art neural channel decoders cannot achieve high decoding performance and low complexity simultaneously. To overcome this challenge, in this paper we propose doubly residual neural (DRN) decoder. By integrating both the residual input and residual learning to the design of neural channel decoder, DRN enables significant decoding performance improvement while maintaining low complexity. Extensive experiment results show that on different types of channel codes, our DRN decoder consistently outperform the state-of-the-art decoders in terms of decoding performance, model sizes and computational cost. |

Model-Driven Deep Learning Based Channel Estimation and Feedback for Millimeter-Wave Massive Hybrid MIMO Systems2021-04-28 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

This paper proposes a model-driven deep learning (MDDL)-based channel estimation and feedback scheme for wideband millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive hybrid multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, where the angle-delay domain channels' sparsity is exploited for reducing the overhead. Firstly, we consider the uplink channel estimation for time-division duplexing systems. To reduce the uplink pilot overhead for estimating the high-dimensional channels from a limited number of radio frequency (RF) chains at the base station (BS), we propose to jointly train the phase shift network and the channel estimator as an auto-encoder. Particularly, by exploiting the channels' structured sparsity from an a priori model and learning the integrated trainable parameters from the data samples, the proposed multiple-measurement-vectors learned approximate message passing (MMV-LAMP) network with the devised redundant dictionary can jointly recover multiple subcarriers' channels with significantly enhanced performance. Moreover, we consider the downlink channel estimation and feedback for frequency-division duplexing systems. Similarly, the pilots at the BS and channel estimator at the users can be jointly trained as an encoder and a decoder, respectively. Besides, to further reduce the channel feedback overhead, only the received pilots on part of the subcarriers are fed back to the BS, which can exploit the MMV-LAMP network to reconstruct the spatial-frequency channel matrix. Numerical results show that the proposed MDDL-based channel estimation and feedback scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. |

Concept and Experimental Demonstration of Optical IM/DD End-to-End System Optimization using a Generative Model2019-12-17 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

We perform an experimental end-to-end transceiver optimization via deep learning using a generative adversarial network to approximate the test-bed channel. Previously, optimization was only possible through a prior assumption of an explicit simplified channel model. |

A Regression Approach to Certain Information Transmission Problems2019-08-21 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

A general information transmission model, under independent and identically distributed Gaussian codebook and nearest neighbor decoding rule with processed channel output, is investigated using the performance metric of generalized mutual information. When the encoder and the decoder know the statistical channel model, it is found that the optimal channel output processing function is the conditional expectation operator, thus hinting a potential role of regression, a classical topic in machine learning, for this model. Without utilizing the statistical channel model, a problem formulation inspired by machine learning principles is established, with suitable performance metrics introduced. A data-driven inference algorithm is proposed to solve the problem, and the effectiveness of the algorithm is validated via numerical experiments. Extensions to more general information transmission models are also discussed. |

End-to-end learnable EEG channel selection with deep neural networks2021-02-11 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Many electroencephalography (EEG) applications rely on channel selection methods to remove the least informative channels, e.g., to reduce the amount of electrodes to be mounted, to decrease the computational load, or to reduce overfitting effects and improve performance. Wrapper-based channel selection methods aim to match the channel selection step to the target model, yet they require to re-train the model multiple times on different candidate channel subsets, which often leads to an unacceptably high computational cost, especially when said model is a (deep) neural network. To alleviate this, we propose a framework to embed the EEG channel selection in the neural network itself to jointly learn the network weights and optimal channels in an end-to-end manner by traditional backpropagation algorithms. We deal with the discrete nature of this new optimization problem by employing continuous relaxations of the discrete channel selection parameters based on the Gumbel-softmax trick. We also propose a regularization method that discourages selecting channels more than once. This generic approach is evaluated on two different EEG tasks: motor imagery brain-computer interfaces and auditory attention decoding. The results demonstrate that our framework is generally applicable, while being competitive with state-of-the art EEG channel selection methods, tailored to these tasks. |

Statistical Learning for Analysis of Networked Control Systems over Unknown Channels2019-11-08 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

Recent control trends are increasingly relying on communication networks and wireless channels to close the loop for Internet-of-Things applications. Traditionally these approaches are model-based, i.e., assuming a network or channel model they are focused on stability analysis and appropriate controller designs. However the availability of such wireless channel modeling is fundamentally challenging in practice as channels are typically unknown a priori and only available through data samples. In this work we aim to develop algorithms that rely on channel sample data to determine the stability and performance of networked control tasks. In this regard our work is the first to characterize the amount of channel modeling that is required to answer such a question. Specifically we examine how many channel data samples are required in order to answer with high confidence whether a given networked control system is stable or not. This analysis is based on the notion of sample complexity from the learning literature and is facilitated by concentration inequalities. Moreover we establish a direct relation between the sample complexity and the networked system stability margin, i.e., the underlying packet success rate of the channel and the spectral radius of the dynamics of the control system. This illustrates that it becomes impractical to verify stability under a large range of plant and channel configurations. We validate our theoretical results in numerical simulations. |

Dynamic Rate and Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio Systems2014-05-12 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

In this paper, we investigate dynamic channel and rate selection in cognitive radio systems which exploit a large number of channels free from primary users. In such systems, transmitters may rapidly change the selected (channel, rate) pair to opportunistically learn and track the pair offering the highest throughput. We formulate the problem of sequential channel and rate selection as an online optimization problem, and show its equivalence to a {\it structured} Multi-Armed Bandit problem. The structure stems from inherent properties of the achieved throughput as a function of the selected channel and rate. We derive fundamental performance limits satisfied by {\it any} channel and rate adaptation algorithm, and propose algorithms that achieve (or approach) these limits. In turn, the proposed algorithms optimally exploit the inherent structure of the throughput. We illustrate the efficiency of our algorithms using both test-bed and simulation experiments, in both stationary and non-stationary radio environments. In stationary environments, the packet successful transmission probabilities at the various channel and rate pairs do not evolve over time, whereas in non-stationary environments, they may evolve. In practical scenarios, the proposed algorithms are able to track the best channel and rate quite accurately without the need of any explicit measurement and feedback of the quality of the various channels. |

Multichannel Generative Language Model: Learning All Possible Factorizations Within and Across Channels2020-10-09 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

A channel corresponds to a viewpoint or transformation of an underlying meaning. A pair of parallel sentences in English and French express the same underlying meaning, but through two separate channels corresponding to their languages. In this work, we present the Multichannel Generative Language Model (MGLM). MGLM is a generative joint distribution model over channels. MGLM marginalizes over all possible factorizations within and across all channels. MGLM endows flexible inference, including unconditional generation, conditional generation (where 1 channel is observed and other channels are generated), and partially observed generation (where incomplete observations are spread across all the channels). We experiment with the Multi30K dataset containing English, French, Czech, and German. We demonstrate experiments with unconditional, conditional, and partially conditional generation. We provide qualitative samples sampled unconditionally from the generative joint distribution. We also quantitatively analyze the quality-diversity trade-offs and find MGLM outperforms traditional bilingual discriminative models. |

Learning to Prune in Training via Dynamic Channel Propagation2020-07-03 ${\displaystyle \cong }$ |

In this paper, we propose a novel network training mechanism called "dynamic channel propagation" to prune the neural networks during the training period. In particular, we pick up a specific group of channels in each convolutional layer to participate in the forward propagation in training time according to the significance level of channel, which is defined as channel utility. The utility values with respect to all selected channels are updated simultaneously with the error back-propagation process and will adaptively change. Furthermore, when the training ends, channels with high utility values are retained whereas those with low utility values are discarded. Hence, our proposed scheme trains and prunes neural networks simultaneously. We empirically evaluate our novel training scheme on various representative benchmark datasets and advanced convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures, including VGGNet and ResNet. The experiment results verify the superior performance and robust effectiveness of our approach. |